Urunjimaram (Sapindus emarginatus)
The drupes (soapnuts) contain saponins, which have surfactant properties, having been used for washing by ancient Asian and American peoples. A number of other uses for Sapindus have also been reported such making arrows from the wood and decorative objects from the seeds.
Sapindus emarginatus is important indigenous plant with lots of traditional importance belongs to family sapindaceae. It is commonly called as Soap nut tree which is found in most of the hilly regions of India. Each and every part of the plant is used traditionally in various ailments. Trees of genus Sapindus are cultivated in many parts of India. The secondary metabolites present in Sapindus emarginatus were found to be alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, saponins fixed oils & fats. It possesses various activities such as surfactant, mild detergent, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, CNS, emetic, hair tonic, nasal insufflations. Therefore the aim of the present review is to summarize the taxonomy, chemical constituents and various studies on the biological activities of the plant Sapindus emarginatus.